Composition of Milk :
• Milk Fat:
In the composition of milk, the flavor of milk is thanks to milk fat. The supermolecule portion includes each phospholipid and triglycerides. Other liquid materials gift in milk ar sterols, free fatty acids, Carotenoids, and fat-soluble vitamins. Carotenes are to blame for the yellow color of milk fat.
• Milk Proteins :
a. Casein: Casein institutes 80% of the total nitrogen in milk. The remaining whey protein constitutes lactoglobulin and lactoalbumin.
b. Whey Proteins: Whey protein made up of alpha-lactoalbumin and beta-lactoglobulin, serum albumin, the immunoglobulins, enzymes, and proteus – peptones.
• Milk Sugar :
In the composition of milk, it contains 4% to 5% carbohydrate. The chief carbohydrate present in milk is lactose, a disaccharide, although trace amounts of glucose, galactose, and other sugars also present.
• Salt :
Chlorides, phosphates, citrates, sulfates, and bicarbonates of sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium are present. Copper and iron are important in the development of off-flavors in milk and milk products.
• Enzymes :
Alkaline phosphatase, one type of lipase, and xanthin oxidase are present in milk.
• Colour :
The yellowish color of milk is because of the presence of carotene and vitamin B.
• Flavour & Aroma :
Milk is slightly sweet because of its lactose content. Flavour sensation in the mouth is due to fat protein and some of the salts such as calcium phosphate.
In the composition of milk, the slight aroma of recent milk is formed by the type of Low Mass compounds like the dissolving agent, ethanal, Dimethyl compound, and short-chain fatty acids.
Nutritive Value of Cow’s Milk (Per 100 gram)
• Moisture (g) – 87.5
• Energy (kcal) – 67
• Protein (g) – 3.2
• Fat (g) – 4.1
• Carbohydrates (g) – 4.4
• Ca metal (mg) – 120
• Phosphorus (mg) – 90
• Iron (mg) – 0.2
• Vitamin A (I.U.) – 174
• Thiamin (mg) – 0.05
• Riboflavin (mg) – 0.19
• Niacin (mg) – 0.1
• Vitamin B12 (ug) – 0.14
Composition Of Milk & Milk Products :
A. NON FERMENTED PRODUCTS
• Evaporated Milk: This is the milk from which about 50% to 60% of the water has been evaporated.
• Sweetened Condensed Milk: The product is made from pasteurized milk that is concentrated and sweetened with sucrose.
• Khoa: It is used in the preparation of gulab jamun, carrot halwa, and coconut burfi.
B. FERMENTED MILK PRODUCTS
ROLE OF MILK AND MILK PRODUCTS IN COOKERY
• Milk adds style and flavor to the merchandise. e.g, – Payasam, Tea, Coffee.
• It acts as a thickening agent in conjunction with starch.
• milk is also used in desserts. e.g, – Ice-cream, Puddings.
• Curd is used as a marinating agent. e.g, – marinating chicken and meat.
• Curd is used as a souring agent. e.g, – Rava Dosa.
• Khoa is used as a binding agent. e.g, – carrot halwa.
• selection to the diet. e.g, – buttermilk sambhar, mutter paneer.
• Cheese is used as a garnishing agent.